Sources

Information presented by Battery Council International is derived from the following sources:

About Lead Batteries | U.S. Lead Battery Industry by the Numbers

+206 GWh Annual manufacturing capacity of lead batteries in North America.
Battery Council International, January 2023

121,000 Jobs – U.S. jobs supported by the lead battery industry. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

50% – Global rechargeable battery market supported by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

+66,000 MWh – Predicted lead battery global market growth from 2021 to 2030.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

~90% – Domestic lead battery demand is met by North American manufacturers.
C. Pillot, Avicenne Energy, 2022

+83% Market Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by North American lead battery recyclers.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2023

49 U.S. Facilities – The number of U.S. manufacturing and recycling facilities.  
Battery Council International, 2023

+160M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

#1 – Lead batteries are the most recycled consumer product in the U.S.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2020

99% of lead batteries are safely recycled…
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

far surpassing any other battery chemistry including lithium-ion (<15% recycled).
Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021

88% – Lead batteries provide 88% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

90% of Demand – Their reliability, cost and safety make lead batteries the dominant choice for the UPS battery market, meeting 90% of demand.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (more than 290 million), including every electric vehicle and approximately 60% of all forklifts, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, Hedges & Company, 2022
Top 20 Lift Truck Suppliers in 2019: Market Reaches New Heights, Modern Materials Handling, 2019

+3% – Expected growth of the 12V lead battery automotive market between 2020-2030 and a market value of $30.1B.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

90% – Motive power battery demand in applications such as forklifts, is met by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

Benefits | Domestic Infrastructure

99% U.S. Recycling Rate
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

+206 GWh Annual manufacturing capacity of lead batteries in North America.
Battery Council International, January 2023

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

North American recycling of lead batteries and other lead-bearing scrap provides +83% of the domestic demand for lead. 
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2023

An estimated 92% of U.S. lead consumption goes to manufacture new lead batteries.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2022, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2022

Lead batteries have a nearly 100% recycled rate…
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

…(lithium-ion is at about 15% [recycling rate]
Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021

Benefits | Domestic Infrastructure Fact Sheet

99% U.S. Recycling Rate
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

121,000 Jobs – U.S. jobs supported by the lead battery industry.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

+160M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

Approximately 90% of North American lead battery demand is met by North American manufacturers.
C. Pillot, Avicenne Energy, 2020

U.S. lead battery manufacturers currently source more than 83% of the needed lead from North American recycling facilities.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2023

…(lithium-ion is at <15% [recycling rate]
Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021

Benefits | Essential

Lead batteries power more than 290 million cars and trucks in the U.S., delivering people to jobs, education and healthcare.
Vehicles-in-Operation, Hedges & Company, 2022

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
American Public Transportation Association, 2019

The New York Stock Exchange relies on lead battery backup power to protect its critical online data.
“Berks a Major Player in Worldwide Battery Production,” Reading Eagle, July 2017

Benefits | Essential Fact Sheet

Lead batteries provide nearly 90% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
2019 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

The New York Stock Exchange, Google and other major entities rely on lead battery backup power to protect massive online data repositories.
Berks a Major Player in Worldwide Battery Production, Reading Eagle, July 2017

*Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 275 million), including every electric vehicle and approximately 60% of all forklifts, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, July 2019
Top 20 Lift Truck Suppliers in 2019: Market Reaches New Heights, Modern Materials Handling, 2019

*Updated Stat: Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 290 million).
Vehicles-in-Operation, Hedges & Company, 2022

The global automotive industry produces more than 85 million new vehicles annually. On average, each vehicle will use three to four lead batteries over its lifespan.
Success of the Circular Economy of Automotive Battery Recycling, Johnson Controls, 2017

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
Public Transportation Facts, American Public Transportation Association, 2019

*Lead batteries provide over 70% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

*Updated Stat: Lead batteries provide 50% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

Benefits | Innovative

Additionally, start-stop technology utilizing lead batteries is eliminating nearly 6.7 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 290 million), including every electric vehicle, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, Hedges & Company, 2022

Benefits | Reliable

34 million times each weekday, lead batteries help transport Americans via public transportation.
American Public Transportation Association, 2019

Benefits | Safe

The 2017 Sustainable Consortium Impact Report recognized the industry for its strong record on worker health and safety.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

Modern, closed-loop recycling in the U.S. keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Benefits | Safe Fact Sheet

Since 1999, Battery Council International’s members have committed to keeping the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers at levels well below those required by OSHA.
Battery Council International, 2019

At the end of 2019, average BLLs were more than 80% below what OSHA requires.
Battery Council International, 2019

Air emissions from lead battery production and recycling are each less than 1% of total U.S. lead emissions.
“2017 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Data,” Environmental Protection Agency, Feb 2020 

In the U.S., lead batteries maintain a 99% recycling rate using a closed-loop recycling network that keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills annually.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

*The world entrusts 70% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, May 2019

*Updated Stat: The world entrusts 60% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

Lead batteries provide nearly 90% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
2019 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

Lead batteries are one of the preferred solutions for data center uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.
“10 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Data Centre UPS Battery,” Technical Review, Feb 2020

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
Public Transportation Facts, American Public Transportation Association, 2019

When used properly, lead batteries are a safe energy source, able to withstand up to 167°F and conditions as cold as -22°F.
A Review of Battery Technologies for Automotive Applications, Joint Analysis: EUROBAT, ILA, JAMA, KAMA, ACEA, 2014

Benefits | Supply Chain Infographic

+206 GWh Annual manufacturing capacity of lead batteries in North America.
Battery Council International, January 2023

+165 GWh Annual manufacturing capacity of lead batteries in the U.S.
Battery Council International, January 2023

+160M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

99% Recycling Rate
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Compared to lithium-ion [recycling rate] at <15%.
Vehicle Technologies Office’s Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

+83% Domestic Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by North American lead battery recycling.
Battery Council International, February 2023

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Approximately 90% of North American lead battery demand is met by North American manufacturers.
C. Pillot, Avicenne Energy, 2020

Benefits | Sustainable

In transportation, lead batteries reduce greenhouse gas emissions in vehicles with start-stop engines and help cut fuel consumption in those vehicles by up to 10%.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

An established recycling infrastructure gives lead batteries a nearly 100% recycling rate.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

This steady supply of recycled lead battery components means a typical new lead battery is comprised of more than 80% recycled material.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Modern, closed-loop recycling in the U.S. keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year and provides U.S. battery manufacturers a secure domestic supply of recycled inputs.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Lead batteries have a 99% recycling rate, the highest of any consumer product in the U.S.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2020

Research shows that 62% of U.S. firms are planning to move to a circular economy. The lead battery industry leads the curve by being in the 16% who already have.
Opportunity and Disruption: How Circular Thinking Could Change US Business Models, ING Americas, Jan. 2019

Benefits | Sustainable Fact Sheet

99% of lead batteries are recycled, making them the most recycled consumer product in the U.S. and the most recyclable battery technology. (In contrast, less than 15% of lithium-ion batteries are recycled.)
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2020
Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021

Modern, closed-loop recycling in the U.S. keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year and provides U.S. battery manufacturers a secure domestic supply of recycled inputs.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Lead batteries rank among the top five consumer product categories in sustainability.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

A typical new lead battery is comprised of more than 80% recycled material, thanks to the circular model of the industry.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Lead batteries are an integral part of start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicle engine systems, which lower fuel consumption by up to 10%.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Start-stop technology using lead batteries is eliminating nearly 6.7 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Over 60% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs are met by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

*Updated Stat: 50% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs are met by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

Circular Economy of Lead Batteries Infographic

The world entrusts 50% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Modern, closed-loop recycling keeps more than 160 million lead batteries from landfills each year.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

Lead batteries have a 99% recycling rate, the highest of any consumer product in the U.S.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

U.S. lead battery manufacturers source approximately +83% of lead from North American recycling facilities.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, January 2023

A new lead battery is typically comprised of more than 80% recycled material.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Lead batteries rank among the top five consumer product categories in sustainability.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

Circular Economy of Lead Batteries Information Brief

Research shows that 62% of U.S. firms plan to move to a circular economy. The lead battery industry leads the curve by being in the 16% who already have.
Opportunity and Disruption: How Circular Thinking Could Change US Business Models, ING Americas, Jan. 2019

A new lead battery is typically comprised of 80% recycled material
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

The environmental impact of manufacturing a lead-based automotive battery is four times less than manufacturing a similar lithium-iron phosphate automotive battery.
Comparative LCA of Lead and LFP Batteries for Automotive Applications, Battery Council International, 2023

A new lead battery is typically comprised of more than 80% recycled material.Using secondary lead instead of ore reduces CO2 emissions by 99%.
Extract Non-Ferrous Metals, Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) Annual Report, 2022

Global competition for finite resources will intensify as world population and economies grow.
Sustainable Materials Management Basics, Environmental Protection Agency, 2023

+83% – The approximate amount of lead that U.S. lead battery manufacturers source domestically from recycling facilities in North America.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, January 2023

$4.5 trillion The predicted amount of additional economic output generated by the circular economy by 2030.
Waste to Wealth: Creating Advantage in a Circular Economy, Accenture, 2015

Research shows that 80% of a product’s environmental impact is influenced by decisions made at the design stage.
An Introduction to Circular Design, llen MacArthur Foundation, June 2022

The world entrusts nearly 45% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

The EPA ranks lead batteries as the most recycled product in the U.S.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management 2018 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, December 2020

Modern, closed-loop recycling keeps more than 160 million lead batteries from landfills each year.
National Recycled Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

Recycling for LI and LFP is often unprofitable (e.g., virgin lithium is six times cheaper than recycled lithium). There’s also no nationwide recycling infrastructure or legislation for LI and LFP batteries. To date, researchers have made only modest progress improving recyclability, so relatively few Li-ion batteries are recycled.
“Stop Landfilling Batteries: How to Build Near-Zero-Waste Energy Storage”, John Connell, Crown Battery, 2023

In recognition of the challenges and need to recycle lithium-ion batteries, the U.S. Department of Energy has established a $10 million prize to “accelerate the development of [lithium- ion battery recycling] solutions from concept to prototype to demonstration
ABTC receives $10M DOE grant for battery recycling,” Recycling Today, 2023

Economic Impact | Economic Contribution to the U.S. Lead Battery Industry

The industry annually contributes nearly $33 billion to the national economy.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

121,000 Jobs – U.S. jobs supported by the lead battery industry.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

Wages are 36% higher for recycling and mining workers and 25% higher for manufacturing workers compared to all private sector jobs.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council

+165 GWh Annual manufacturing capacity of lead batteries in U.S.
Battery Council International, January 2023

Supplying 50% – Amount of global energy storage needs, including renewable energy, met by efficient lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

+83% Market Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by North American lead battery recyclers.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2023

+160M: Number of lead batteries kept from U.S. landfills annually.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2023

99% U.S. lead battery recycling rate.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

6.7 million tons of GHG emissions eliminated annually in the U.S. by start-stop-technology enabled by lead batteries.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Economic Impact | Growth in the U.S. Lead Battery Industry

The U.S. lead battery industry makes a $32.9 billion annual economic impact.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

Over 38,000 direct jobs in the lead battery industry. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

More than 121,000 total jobs attributed to the lead battery industry. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

Average salaries in the lead battery industry are 36% higher for recycling and mining workers and 25% higher for manufacturing workers compared to other private sector jobs. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council

Providing direct jobs in 38 states.
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

In 2021, the lead battery industry invested nearly $113 million in research and innovation. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, March 2023

The U.S. provides more than 165 GWh of annual lead battery manufacturing capacity. 
Battery Council International, January 2023

Lead batteries power more than 290 million cars and trucks in the U.S.
Vehicles-in-Operation, Hedges & Company, 2022

Supplying 50% of the world’s energy storage needs.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

The U.S. recycles over 99% of its spent lead battery.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

start-stop-technology enabled by lead batteries eliminates 6.7 million tons of GHG emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Lead Batteries, America’s Most Recycled Consumer Product

Lead batteries reign as the most recycled consumer product in the U.S. today…
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, December 2020

99% of lead batteries are safely recycled in an established, coast-to-coast network of advanced recycling facilities.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

99% Recycling Rate [lead batteries] Compared to lithium-ion at <15%. 
Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021

+130M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

+80% Recycled Material – Composition of a typical new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

#1 Recycled Product – The EPA ranks lead batteries as the most recycled consumer product in the U.S. 
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, December 2020

*86% Domestic Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by U.S. lead battery recycling.
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2022, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2022

*Updated Stat: +83% Domestic Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by U.S. lead battery recycling.
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2023

News | National Battery Day

Nearly 50% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs are met by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2023

Lead batteries supply 90% of the motive power battery demand in applications such as forklifts to keep commerce on track.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

The U.S. battery industry powers roughly $8.1 trillion worth of domestic industrial economic output annually, or nearly 20% of the U.S. economy. Plus, the industry provides nearly 48 million U.S. jobs that are related to, or reliant on, the battery industry.lead batteries.
“The Battery Fueled Economy: US Domestic and Supported Canadian Activity”, EBP, 2024

 

Solutions

As providers of over 60% of the world’s rechargeable battery capacity, lead batteries are an established, economical technology that is essential to meeting our growing energy storage needs.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

Solutions | Data Centers and Telecom

The telecom industry uses lead batteries for nearly 90% of the backup power required for our 24/7 mobile connections.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

Research shows the battery market in the telecommunication industry is poised to grow by $5.95 billion during 2022-2026. 
Global Battery Market in Telecommunication Industry 2022-2026, ResearchAndMarkets.com, April 2022

Solutions | Electric and Autonomous Vehicles 

Start-stop technology… eliminates nearly 6.7 million tons of GHG emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2022

Solutions | Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Fact Sheet

By 2030… approximately 30% of all U.S. new car sales will be EVsThe 2021 AASA Release 2022 Joint Trends Reports on EV, Auto Care Association, 2022

Less than 1% of the 290 million cars, SUVs and light-duty trucks on U.S. roads today are electric.
Rueters,  2022

From 2017 to 2030, the cycle life of current lead battery energy storage systems is expected to double.
Electricity Storage and Renewables: Costs and Markets to 2030, Irena, 2022

Solutions | Electric Vehicles and Autonomous Vehicles Information Brief

Start-stop technology… eliminates nearly 10 million tons of GHG emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

Solutions | Start-Stop 10 Million Tons Social Graphic

Start-stop technology using lead batteries is eliminating nearly 10 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

Solutions | Start-Stop Vehicles Infographic

Start-stop technology is a design feature used by most automotive manufacturers…
The 2023 EPA Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2023

From 2021-2027, the market for automotive start-stop systems is predicted to grow at nearly 6% (CAGR).
VVT & Start-Stop System Market, MarketsandMarkets, Nov. 2021

~30.6 million vehicles in the U.S. have start-stop technology.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

In model year 2022, ~65% of U.S. vehicles included the start-stop feature…
The 2023 EPA Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2023

In 2022, light-duty trucks represented over 50% of start-stop vehicle production in the U.S.
The 2023 EPA Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2023

Start-stop technology eliminates nearly 10 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

Engine-off time can yield fuel savings ranging from 5-10%.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

Solutions | Renewable Energy

Over half of the people in LDCs (least developed countries) lack access to electricity. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, July 2021

Solutions | Renewable Energy Information Brief

Experts project that renewable energy will be the fastest-growing source of energy through 2050. Annual Energy Outlook 2022, U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Over the past decade, renewable energy capacity in the U.S. nearly quadrupled. Renewables on the Rise 2021, Environment America Research & Policy Center.

Investment in global battery energy storage is expected to more than double to reach almost $20 billion in 2022. World Energy Investment Press Release, IEA, June 2022.

85% The predicted amount of renewables by 2050. New Energy Outlook 2021, BloombergNEF, Green Scenario.

7.7 TWh Battery storage in 2050, avg. 257 GWh installed per year to 2050. New Energy Outlook 2021, BloombergNEF, Green Scenario.

Between $92T and $173T The investment in energy supply and infrastructure by 2050. New Energy Outlook 2021, BloombergNEF, Green Scenario.

20.1% Amount of electricity generation in the U.S. from renewable energy sources in 2021. FAQS, U.S. Energy Information Administration, May 2022.

In 2020, worldwide demand for lithium was about 350,000 tons, but industry estimates project demand will be up to six times greater by 2030. U.S. Seeks New Lithium Sources as Demand for Clean Energy Grows, PBS, March 2022.

U.S. domestic mining of lithium is limited to less than 2% of annual global production. U.S. Seeks New Lithium Sources as Demand for Clean Energy Grows, PBS, March 2022.

U.S. domestic mining of lithium is limited to less than 2% of annual global production.U.S. Seeks New Lithium Sources as Demand for Clean Energy Grows, PBS, March 2022.

Some critical metals used in lithium-ion batteries, namely lithium, cobalt and graphite are scarce, are not currently mined in large quantities, or are mined in only a few countries whose trade policies could limit availability and impact prices as demand increases. The Case for Recycling: Overview and challenges in the material Supply Chain for Automotive li-ion Batteries, Science Direct, April 2019.

Australia, Chile, and China – mine roughly 86% of the world’s lithium. Charted: Lithium Production by Country (1995-2020), Visual Capitalist, February 2022.

60% of the world’s cobalt is mined in the Democratic of Congo, and 80% of that supply is processed in China. Critical Materials Rare Earths Supply Chain: A Situational White Paper, U.S. Department of Energy, April 2020.

China is home to 73% of lithium cell manufacturing capacity, followed by the U.S., far behind in second place with 12% of global capacity. Why China Is Dominating Lithium-Ion Battery Production, Forbes, August 2019.

Lead batteries and lithium-ion batteries will remain the most important rechargeable energy storage options, as reported through 2030. Lead Acid Battery Market, Today and Main Trends to 2030 (Page 7), Avicenne Energy, 2022.

Up to 20 years: A lead battery’s demonstrated lifespan. An Innovation Roadmap for Advanced Lead Batteries, CBI, 2019.

100% By 2030, the cycle life of current lead battery energy storage systems is expected to double. Electricity Storage and Renewables: Costs and Markets to 2030, page 124, IRENA, October 2017.

Once installed, lead batteries can be one-third the cost of comparable energy storage systems. Lead Batteries for Utility Energy Storage: A Review, Journal of Energy Storage 15, Elsevier, 2018.

A comparable analysis of lithium-ion and lead battery systems, including decommissioning, showed lead batteries had an end-of- life net credit of approximately $33 per kWh versus lithium’s $91 cost per kWh. Deka Fahrenheit, East Penn Manufacturing Company, 2022.

The World Bank forecasts a 1,200% increase in lead demand for batteries in energy storage. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank, 2017.

U.S. lead battery manufacturers currently source more than 83% of the needed lead from North American recycling facilities. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023, U.S. Geological Survey, January 2023.

On average, a typical new lead battery is comprised of 80% recycled material. “Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016.

Over 99% of spent lead batteries in the U.S. are recycled. National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019.

Estimates show fewer than 15% of lithium ion batteries in similar uses are recycled. Building Resilient Supply Chains, Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth, The White House, June 2021.

Lead batteries are the most widely used electricity storage system on earth, comprising 60% of the worldwide rechargeable battery market share. Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, November 2021.

69% of U.S. adults prioritize developing alternative energy sources, such as wind and solar, over expanding the production of oil, coal and natural gas. “Americans Largely Favor U.S. Taking Steps to Become Carbon Neutral by 2050”, Pew Research Center, March 2022.

Over 1 billion people do not have electricity. 1.3 Billion Are Living in the Dark, The Washington Post, 2015.

Lead batteries have unique attributes that make them well-suited to help bring electricity to the nearly 25% of the population of all developing countries who have no electricity. Global Tracking Framework 2017 – Progress Toward Sustainable ¬Energy, The World Bank, 2017.

Solutions | Transportation

In the U.S., Americans rely on more than 290 million cars and trucks powered by lead batteries to take them where they want to go for work and play.
U.S. Vehicles Registration Statistics, Hedges & Company, 2022

Lead batteries safely transport Americans 34 million times each weekday via public transportation.
Public Transportation Facts, American Public Transportation Association, 2022

An amazing 90% of global motive power battery demand is met by lead batteries.
Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation, Nov. 2021

Start-stop technology… In the U.S. this means nearly 10 million tons of greenhouse gasses are eliminated each year.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

This can yield fuel savings ranging from 5% to 10% depending on driving conditions.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2024

 

Terry Murphy

…lead batteries [will remain] the dominant technology for SLI, its greatest potential is for renewable energy storage…”

Terry Murphy, President, CEO and Chairman, Hammond Group