BCI Recycling Rate Study 2009-2013
Please click here for the full study.
Lead-acid batteries are the environmental success story of our time. More than 98 percent of all battery lead is recycled. Compared to 55% of aluminum soft drink and beer cans, 45% of newspapers, 26% of glass bottles and 26% of tires, lead-acid batteries top the list of the most highly recycled consumer product.
The lead-acid battery gains its environmental edge from its closed-loop life cycle. The typical new lead-acid battery contains 60 to 80 percent recycled lead and plastic. When a spent battery is collected, it is sent to a permitted recycler where, under strict environmental regulations, the lead and plastic are reclaimed and sent to a new battery manufacturer. The recycling cycle goes on indefinitely. That means the lead and plastic in the lead-acid battery in your car, truck, boat or motorcycle have been - and will continue to be -- recycled many, many times. This makes lead-acid battery disposal extremely successful from both environmental and cost perspectives.
Learn more in our Recycling and Sustainability Brochure >>
U.S. State Lead-Acid Battery Laws
Click below for the BCI model for lead-acid battery recycling legislation. This sample has served as a model for many of the state recycling laws now in place in the U.S.
Click here to download and view document.
Downloadable files require Adobe Acrobat© Reader, click here to download.
Recycling a spent lead-acid battery involves five basic steps:
The battery is broken apart in a hammermill, a machine that hammers the battery into pieces.
The broken battery pieces go into a vat, where the lead and heavy materials fall to the bottom while the plastic rises to the top. At this point, the polypropylene pieces are scooped away and the liquids are drawn off, leaving the lead and heavy metals. Each of the materials goes into a different "stream." We'll begin with the plastic, or polypropylene.
The polypropylene pieces are washed, blown dry and sent to a plastic recycler where the pieces are melted together into an almost-liquid state. The molten plastic is put through an extruder that produces small plastic pellets of a uniform size. Those pellets are sold to the manufacturer of battery cases, and the process begins again.
The lead grids, lead oxide and other lead parts are cleaned and then melted together in smelting furnaces.
The molten lead is poured into ingot molds. Large ingots, weighing about 2,000 pounds are called hogs. Smaller ingots, weighing 65 pounds, are called pigs. After few minutes, the impurities, otherwise known as dross, float to the top of the still-molten lead in the ingot molds. The dross is scraped away and the ingots are left to cool.
When the ingots are cool, they are removed from the molds and sent to battery manufacturers, where they are re-melted and used in the production of new lead plates and other parts for new batteries.
Old battery acid can be handled in two ways.
The acid is neutralized with an industrial compound similar to household baking soda. This turns the acid into water. The water is treated, cleaned and tested to be sure it meets clean water standards. Then it is released into the public sewer system.
Another way to treat acid is to process it and convert it to sodium sulfate, an odorless white powder that's used in laundry detergent, glass and textile manufacturing. This takes a material that would be discarded and turns it into a useful product. Acid can also be reclaimed and reused in new battery products through innovative recycling processes.
Recycling Rechargeable Batteries
One place that one can recylce batteries is Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC). Consumers can recycle Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride, Lithium Ion, Nickel Zinc and small Sealed Lead through our Call2Recycle™ program.
Click here to learn more about where you can recycle rechargeable batteries.
Battery Disposal Guide for Households
This is an excellent resource on where to safely recycle used batteries.
Battery Disposal Guide for Businesses
Safe Transporting Information
This is a resouce used to inform consumers how to transport batteries.
1) SmithBucklin Marketing and Research and Statistics Group 2009
2) Aluminum Association, Can Manufacturers Association, and the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries 2009
3) American Forest and Paper Association 2004
4) EPA 2005
5) Recycling Revolution 2004
6) Rubber Manufacturing Association/Rubber World Journal 2009